International Journal of Social Policy & Education

ISSN 2689-4998 (print), 2689-5013 (online)

Exploring Policies and Implementation of Almajiri Schools during COVID-19 Pandemic. A Literature Review

Dr. Lantana M. Usman, PhD.


Purpose: The primary purpose of the paper is to contribute to the gap in literature on the impact of COVID-19 and the schooling of marginalized poor children in developing countries as Nigeria, and Africa in general. The secondary purpose presented an educational collaborative and community-based policy options for the learning continuity of the target marginalized student learners of the paper, which can be applied to similar population across developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: It is based on qualitative educational orientation, using an Exploratory Literature Review (ELR) that focused on integrative literature review design of documents, publications and media blogs. Selected literature was reviewed through keyword searches of electronic data base as Advance Google Search, Google Scholar, Academic and Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). Qualitative content analysis (QCA) was adopted to generate major themes from the literature and presented in a table. The paper discussions are supported with citations of excerpts from the reviewed literatures. •Findings: Major findings revealed that state policy initiative of closing down schools during COVID-19 and repatriating all Almajiri students back to their rural families were in effective as it lead to the discontinuation of their schooling and learning. In addition, their return home facilitated the students return to street begging and farm labor for family sustainability. Findings revealed that the public-school broadcasting as radio and television during COVID-19 lock down were not reachable nor utilized by Almajiris due to their rural geographic locations and none affordability of those technologies by their families. Almajiri parent’s low socio-economic status contributed to low or no support of the students learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Almajiri students as rural dwellers experience more schooling discontinuities’ during COVID-19, thereby creating further educational inequalities and gap between them and urban learners in the country. • Research limitations/implications: The paper will incite further research on the impact of COVID-19 and schooling, especially in the developing countries of Africa. • Originality/value: The paper will be of value in the area of COVID-19 and schooling in the developing countries, particularly Africa. It will also add to the gap in literature in the area of schooling during pandemic in developing countries. Additionally, the paper will challenge educational policy makers and stakeholders to a more responsive inclusive learner initiatives on schooling during pandemics in south nations. Article Classification: Literature Review; Case Study