International Journal of Social Policy & Education

ISSN 2689-4998 (print), 2689-5013 (online)

DOI: 10.61494/ijspe

Paradigm Shift in Education: Classical to Constructivist Approach

Ms. Shalini Johar & Dr. Vinod Kr. Shanwal


The inevitable and centrally important role of education in advancement of any society is undeniable. India is not only known for its rich heritage, culture and traditions but its education system too has a rich history of its own. Its unique schools (gurukuls), curriculum, Guru-shishya unique relation are few of the many highlights that make our ancient education system to standout in the world. The purpose of our ancient education was not merely imparting and acquiring knowledge but also transmitting the cultural norms of the group to its younger members. The aim of education was to inculcate morals, values, ethics and social norms in the learners. However, due to modernization, industrialization, privatization and globalization there has been a paradigm shift in the process of learning. Teacher centered learning has shifted to child centered learning. The major shift is in the mode of instruction- from face-to-face oral instruction to print based instruction, and from Paper learning to E-learning. Today’s learners are knowledge managers and knowledge producers. They are co-constructors of knowledge along with their teachers and peers. No doubt our present education system is meeting the demands of the new knowledge and productive global economy but it is weighed down by many reasons as a result of which the outcome is becoming ego-centric & self-involved. Today, Indian society is witnessing decline in ethical values, facing problems of indiscipline & intolerance, violation of rules & unlawful activities is at its peak. Even the cordial relation between the teacher and the student which was once the highlight of our nation is missing. All this depicts that our present education system requires reforms which can be implemented from ancient education for overall development of students as a good human being. Drawing out basic essence of the ancient education system the present paper delineates the paradigm shift in education that articulates the trajectory of educational system from past to present. After discussing perks of classical and constructive approach the paper highlights the lacunae and reforms needed in present education system.